Case Study Questions


1. How does the first era of antitrust thinking (1890-1950s) differ from the second era? 

Ans: The first antitrust law, the Sherman Act in 1890 as a "comprehensive charter of economic liberty aimed at preserving free and unfettered competition as the rule of trade." In 1914, Congress passed two additional antitrust laws: the Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the FTC, and the Clayton Act. With some revisions, these are the three core federal antitrust laws still in effect today.


2. What is a "natural monopoly" and how has the United States dealt with natural monopolies? 

Ans: A natural monopoly is a type of monopoly that exists due to the high start-up costs or powerful economies of scale of conducting a business in a specific industry. A natural monopoly arises when average costs are declining over the range of production that satisfies market demand.

In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is in charge of regulating monopolies.

Natural monopolies occur when it makes the most sense, efficiency-wise, for only one firm to exist in a given sector. This generally happens when the industry involved has extremely high fixed costs. (Fixed costs are those that remain the same regardless of the number of goods or services produced. Rent, for example, is a fixed cost.)


3. What are three possible solutions to the market dominance and anti-competitive behavior of Facebook, Google, and Amazon?

Ans: The any three possible solution of the market dominance and ani competitive behavior because of Facebook, Google and Amazon are:

  1. Have a lower profit based company with same approach to the society. 
  2. Provide same items for cheaper prices and better deals. 
  3. Have the least amount of ads to provide better social media surfing.

4. How does the European model of antitrust differ from the American model? 

Ans: The central difference was initially that the relevant U.S.-American law is much older.In  Europe  developed  mainly  after  the  Second  World  War.  Their  development  was  triggered  by  the  introduction  of  the  rules  on  competition  in  the  European  Community  in  1958.

The  U.S.  forms  a  continent.  This  means,  in  our  context:  The  experience  with  legal  enforcement  is  much  broader.The American Antitrust Law was – at least initially – more political, insofar as it could be made the subject of a public debate. It played a role in deciding elections. E.g in the  beginning,  the  influence  of  farmers  and  their  associations  was  decisive. In Europe, Competition Law is still a playing field for specialized experts. It does not play a major role in the education of either lawyers or economists.

In  the  USA,  antitrust  is  a  matter  for  private  actors.  In  Europe,  the  role  of  the  state  was  inevitably  involved.




  1.  Go to Google and find the Advanced Search link. Examine its SafeSearch filtering options. Surf the Web in search of content that could be considered objectionable for children using each of the options. What are the pros and cons of such restrictions? Are there terms that could be considered inappropriate to the filtering software but be approved by parents? Name five questionable terms. Prepare a brief presentation to report on your experiences and to explain the positive and negative aspects of such filtering software.

Ans: The alternatives for the SafeSearch incorporate “Show most significant results” and “Filter unequivocal results.” These confinements are there so that guardians can channel what their children rummage around for on the web. Destinations that are considered questionable would most likely be relating to text/photos of grown-up sexual behavior, savagery and despise, drugs and medicate culture, bigotry and bigotry, betting, tobacco, liquor, and remorselessness to creatures. The aces to such limitations is in case a parent doesn’t need their kids looking for these “bad” websites. I can’t envision guardians needing or letting their child explore for such data, unless they are doing a investigate extend for school, which is where the cons of the restrictions come into play. The cons of these confinements would be in the event that a young person had to do a term paper on one of these subjects but was unallowed to see the locales since there was a limitation. There are unquestionably terms that might be considered improper to the sifting computer program but be endorsed by parents. -Intimation, Smoking substances & Drinking alcohol. 


2. Develop a list of privacy protection features that should be present if a website is  serious about protecting privacy. Then, visit at least four well-known websites and examine their privacy policies. Write a report that rates each of the websites on the criteria you have developed.


 1. The Protection security features are: Passwords, gadget fingerprinting, treats, a secure browser, and a security seal. 

2. Websites with security policies: Businesses, Online Keeping money, Google, or essentially any location simply require a username and watchword to get to.


A protection approach may be an articulation or a lawful report that unveils a few or all of the ways a party assembles, employments, unveils, and oversees a client or client's information. It fulfills a legitimate prerequisite to secure a client or client's protection. The websites over are similarly critical and ought to be ensured by protection arrangements. The security security highlights offer assistance guarantee that characters and or individual data aren’t stolen. Individual data can be anything that can be utilized to recognize a person, not constrained to but counting title, address, date of birth, conjugal status, contact data, ID issue and expiry date, money related records, credit data, therapeutic history, where one voyages, and eagerly to secure merchandise and administrations. Within the case of a trade it is frequently an explanation that announces a party's arrangement on how it collects, stores, and discharges individual data it collects. It advises the client what particular data is collected, and whether it is kept private, shared with accomplices, or sold to other firms or ventures. Ordinarily you're as it were able to see/read these privacy policies on the off chance that you're a client otherwise you make an account with them. For illustration, once you sign up for a google account, promptly after you make a username and secret word, the site will at that point inquire you in case you acknowledge the terms and understanding which too state the security approaches. You'll moreover discover these arrangements inside the settings of your account.