From: Nathan J. Nelson

To: Dr. Tucker, Shin-Ping

Subject: Homework 7

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 29 March 2019


††††††††††† What would you do?

Your manager is leading a project to develop new software that is essential to the success of the midsized manufacturing firm where you work. The firm has decided to hire an outside contractor to execute the project. One candidate firm boasts that its software development practices are a level 4 of CMMI. Another firm claims their practices are IS0 9001 compliant. Your manager has come to you and asked for your opinion on how much weight should be given to these certifications when deciding which firm to use. What should you say?

As you are representing a firm that deals in the manufacturing of goods, it might be advisable to choose ISO 9001 compliance over CMMI. However, both deal with the safety and successful operation of their materials.


You are a programmer for a firm that develops a popular tax preparation software package designed to help individuals prepare their federal tax returns. In the course of testing some small changes that were made to the software, you detect an errorin the software that results in roughly a five percent underestimation of the amount owed, both for those indicated they were single and for those were married but filing separate tax returns. It is now late march, and it is likely that well over 100,000 users who submitted their returns are using your software will be affected by this error. What do you say to your firmís management.

That the company needs to improve quality controls within its development process, communication to the affected parties need to be notified immediately of the oversight, and the US Government needs to be made aware of the shortcoming of the service provided. This is all in the hopes that no adverse repercussions come to the client, furthermore, if there are negative impacts to the client it should be the firmís immediate response to absorb these costs to ensure their continued use of the product in the future.


Critical Thinking Joint Strike Fighter

1.      Do research to learn the current status of the F-35 program. Document your findings in a 2 or 3 paragraph summary. What do you think are the most serious issues of the remaining software problems impacting the F-35?


Seven years ago the F-35 project was put on probation by the Untied States Government due to the project being over budget and behind schedule. Lockheed Martin had two years to fix the remaining issues with the project or the government was going to cut their losses and shut the program down. Flight speed, weight, flight distance, agility, and 9 million lines of code needed to be adjusted to make the project acceptable.


To date, the distributed aperture system has yet to be properly deployed, yet Northrop Grumman, the original developer has removed themselves from the project and is replaced by Raytheon. By updating the DAS, it will allow the system pilot to have near 360-degree view field of vision. As of December 2018, the fighter is now in the ďstress testĒ phase of development. Whereby the pilots will put the craft through the paces and note any deficiencies.


2.      Some say that it is unethical to deploy the fighter prior to resolving all software issues that limit is effectiveness in combat or that could put the pilot at risk. Others say that the fighter is an emerging evolving piece of technology and that only through observation of its performance in combat can tis various features be refined and perfected. State your opinion on this issue and explain why you feel this way.


If youíre going to deploy any military system, it has to be put through the paces that some training scenarios just canít account for, nor can you predict everything that the enemy is going to throw at them. Therefore, you have to be willing to send limited number of these aircraft into an actual scenario and record the outcomes. However, limited is the key phrase, as to fully deploy the craft without removing all bugs associated with the craft needlessly endangers the lives of the pilot and the ground forces that they support.



3.      What suggestions do you have to improve the development and testing of the software for the program?


As stated in question 2, have limited deployment, ideally within training scenarios to gauge the stress on the craft and pilot. Furthermore, stringent guidelines need to be followed and reviewed by the developing company. While Raytheon holds their employees to an extremely high standard, you need to consider the sub-contractors, or other companies working on the project in conjunction with Raytheon.


Critical Thinking Self Driving Cars

1.      When self-driving cars are involved in accidents, where does the liability reside? Is it in the driverís fault? Is the car manufacturer or software manufacturer libel? How might the deployment of self-driving cars affect the insurance industry.


Currently, there are no vehicles certified level five by the SAE, and limited number of level 4 vehicles. Furthermore, by that statement, it means that drivers are to remain alert and able to maintain control at any given moment without notice to the driver. Thus, if an accident does occur, there is a high probability that there is driver error, in conjunction with the AI systems as well. This doesnít release the vehicle or software manufacturer from liability, but merely limits it.


2.      Some industry experts believe that the future of AV depends on the standardization of artificial intelligence algorithms across all vehicles. Such standardization would allow vehicles from different manufacturers to share driving experience data and artificial intelligence algorithm updates. So, an adjustment like the one that Google made so its software would be more deeply understand that buses and other large vehicles are lies likely to yield could be shared with other makers. What are the pros and cons of implementing standard AI algorithm across the board? Do you think the vehicle makers would accept this mandate? Why or why not?


Currently, there are numerous vehicle manufacturers and other suppliers that are in support of a universal standard and codes to help with vehicle navigation. However, there are companies such as Tesla that move against the flow and keep all information proprietary. Case in point, when researching autonomous vehicles for my senior capstone, dozens of companies got back to me with information that they were researching or led me to various parts of their websites that had the information publicly posted. Tesla on the other hand refused my phone calls and emails. By implementing a standard program and having numerous companies work to maintain and better the program you will have a uniform standard by which to follow. Furthermore, if you are a newcomer to the field, that research can then be easily implemented into your own designs. Conversely, using the same argument, a late comer can take advantage of the system by not contributing time, money, and other resources to the project.



3.      AVS range from complete control to no control. Should the degree of care exercised in developing vehicle software increase as the level of autonomy increased, or should all vehicles software be treated with the same level of care?


Regardless of the level of automation, it needs to be treated with the same care that level 5 or level 0 receives. By giving all levels the same amount of care you can ensure that the same high standards are being applied to the systems at each level and not just the higher levels of automation.