Case Study Questions:

1.       Why does Akamai need to geographically disperse its servers to deliver its customers' web content?

The reason they spread their servers and store it in certain places around the world is doing so makes the content is as close to clients as possible, people from places can load at an increased speed, reducing the waiting time.

2.       If you wanted to deliver software content over the Internet, would you sign up for Akamai's service? Why or why not?

It depends. If I wanted to reach local traffic, says, I wanted to sell products to local residents, I do not need Akamai since my target traffic is local and paying for multiple server service is a waste. If I wanted to sell products globally, Akamai can be taken into consideration since it provides my clients content with a fast delivery speed.

3.       Do you think Internet users should be charged based on the amount of bandwidth they consume, or on a tiered plan where users would pay in rough proportion to their usage?

I do not it is a good idea to charge users based on the amount of bandwidth they consume. I am supportive of net neutrality, which means Internet traffic should be treated equally. If the user is charged based on their bandwidth consumption, companies will for sure pay fo better internet service, therefore, get a faster internet with a larger internet usage, this will leave normal consumer with a much more sluggish experience. The huge gap in financial power will cause a huge gap in internet usage, considering how powerful and useful the internet is in our every day life, this would cause unfairness among corporate and single citizen, the rich and the poor.

 

Project Questions:

4.       Select two countries (excluding the United States) and prepare a short report describing their basic Internet infrastructure. Are they public or commercial? How and where do they connect to backbones within the United States?

1. South Africa - officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is a country located in Southern Africa. It is bordered to the north by Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. To the east it is bordered by Mozambique and Swaziland; and within it lies Lesotho, an enclave surrounded by South African territory. South Africa is the 25th largest country in the world by land area and has close to 55 million people population.

 

Internet users in South Africa showing penetration as a percentage of Internet users in the population.

 

16 .00% 14.00% 12.00% 10.00% 8.00% 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% 0.00%

2000      2001      2002     2003     2004   2005.  2008.  2009.  2010

 

Internet usage, broadband and telecommunications reports 28,580,290 Internet users as of June 30, 2016; 52.0% of the population, according to IAB.

 

Although expensive compared to more developed nations, broadband is easily obtainable in South Africa. Fixed line options such as ADSL, ISDN, Diginet and Leased Lines are available from the national operator Telkom.

 

ISPs in countries with borders shared with South Africa benefit from low tariff policies of the public South African telecom operator for international links to neighboring countries. As a result, South Africa is a hub for some of its neighbors: Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland. There are no other regional backbones or links between neighboring countries aside from Mauritius to Madagascar and the links to South Africa’s neighbors, so much local traffic must go via the United States. This means that significant and rapidly increasing capital outflows from the region are occurring for Internet traffic between African countries paid to United States or European telecom operators and ISPs. Vast amounts of telecom transit payments a year leave the continent that could have been invested in local infrastructure

 

Telecommunications infrastructure in South Africa provides modern and efficient service to urban areas, including cellular and internet services. In 1997, Telkom, the South African telecommunications parastatal, was partly privatized and entered into a strategic equity partnership with a consortium of two companies, including SBC, a U.S. telecommunications company.

 

Five cellular companies provide service to over 30 million subscribers, with South Africa considered to have the 4th most advanced mobile telecommunications network worldwide. The five cellular providers are Vodacom, MTN, Cell C, Virgin Mobile and Telkom (Mobile), which is run by Telkom.

 

2. India

 

India's telecommunication network is the second largest in the world by number of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone) with 1.053 billion subscribers as on 31 August 2016. It has one of the lowest call tariffs in the world enabled by mega telecom operators and hyper-competition among them. India has the world's second-largest Internet user-base. As on 31 March 2016, there were 342.65 million internet subscribers in the country.

 

Internet access in Indians

Internet users  

462.12 million(January 2016)

 

Broadband subscribers 

291.61 million

 

(May 2017)

 

Internet penetration     

34.8%

(January 2016)

 

Share of World Internet Users   

13.5%

(January 2016)

 

Indian telecom industry underwent a high pace of market liberalization and growth since the 1990s and now has become the world's most competitive and one of the fastest growing telecom markets. The Industry has grown over twenty times in just ten years, from under 37 million subscribers in the year 2001 to over 846 million subscribers in the year 2011.

 

After March 2000, the government became more liberal in making policies and issuing licenses to private operators. The government further reduced license fees for cellular service providers and increased the allowable stake to 74% for foreign companies. Because of all these factors, the service fees finally reduced and the call costs were cut greatly enabling every common middle-class family in India to afford a cell phone. Nearly 32 million handsets were sold in India. The data reveals the real potential for growth of the Indian mobile market. Many private operators, such as Reliance Communications, Jio, Tata Indicom, Vodafone, Loop Mobile, Airtel, Idea etc., successfully entered the high potential Indian telecom market.

5.       Investigate the Internet ofThings. Select one example and describe what it is and how it works.

IoT means taking all the things in the world and connecting them to the internet. For example, you can connect your Google Smart Homess to your light system, and other home devices and control them with your voice, ask them to search online, play music., forecast weather, etc. An IoT system consists of sensors/devices which “talk” to the cloud through some kind of connectivity. Once the data gets to the cloud, software processes it and then might decide to perform an action, such as sending an alert or automatically adjusting the sensors/devices without the need for the user.