ITS 380-001 Global E-Commerce Systems

Xueying Mei

CH3 – E-Commerce Infrastructure: The Internet, Web, and Mobile Platform

 

P.181   Case Study Questions:

Q1: Why does Akamai need to geographically disperse its servers to deliver its customers' web content?

        Answer: Akamai expected to topographically scatter its server to convey its customers' web content as the present web have been confronting many postponements. The web traffic in the present broadband link and DSL industry, the surpassing the limit of switches at nearby ISP's are not fit for holding up to the traffic that it gets. Akamai thought of an answer of edge organizing by putting duplicates of content near the client with the goal that the content just needs to move crosswise over nation once and can be conveyed to clients from neighborhood servers. With Akamai putting away duplicates of web content at various areas around the web it very well may be effectively recovered as adjacent duplicate, making web pages load quicker.

 

Q2: If you wanted to deliver software content over the Internet, would you sign up for Akamai's service? Why or why not?

        Answer: Yes, I would. First of all, the case is to deliver software content over the internet, which means this product will in a certain size and will be download by users from different areas, even different countries. What is more, even we assume that there is likelihood that the software would not as big as a HD movie, but as the information and technology flows, there will be more likely update my software in the future. Therefore, software such as Akamai would be very necessary. So that use Akamai software would guarantee the data is reliable, scalable, transmit in a fast speed, flawless, and secured with report feedback. To be more realistic, when an employee search for “Faster internet delivery software”, Akamai comes at one of the top links on Google. Plus, many good feedback remarks.

 

Q3: Do you think Internet users should be charged based on the amount of bandwidth they consume, or on a tiered plan where users would pay in rough proportion to their usage?

        Answer: No, Internet clients ought not be charged by the measure of transmission capacity they utilize like cell information, I concur if web clients are charged by the measure of transfer speed the nature of administration increment, and furthermore progressively fast web, yet paying as much as possible for that administration would not bode well to pay an excess of cash for web. This issue is going on in center eastern piece of world Net-Neutrality issue in India went far and were overseeing about laws that were wanting to turn out yet postponed, this demonstration will enable clients to be dealt with various by the amount they are paying for measure of transfer speed they are utilizing. Balance is the most vital piece of utilizing web, where everyone ought to get same speeds regardless of what their use will be.

P.183   Projects:

Q3: Select two countries (excluding the United States) and prepare a short report describing their basic Internet infrastructure. Are they public or commercial? How and where do they connect to backbones within the United States?

Answer:

Australia:

Permanent Internet access was first available in Australia to universities via AARNet in 1989.Pegasus Networks pioneered public use in June 1989. The first commercial dial-up Internet Service Provider (ISP) appeared in capital cities soon after, and by the mid-1990's almost the entire country had a range of choices of dial-up ISPs. Today, Internet access is available through a range of technologies, i.e. hybrid fiber coaxial cable, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and satellite Internet. The Australian Government, in partnership with the industrial sector, began rolling out a nationwide Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) and improved fixed wireless and satellite access through the National Broadband Network in July 2009. Subsequently, the roll out was downgraded to a Multi-Technology Mix on the promise of it being less expensive with earlier completion.

Early days, Australia was recognized as part of the Internet when the .au domain (ccTLD) was delegated to Robert Elz of the Australian Computing Science Network (ACSNet) in March 1986. From then on various universities connected intermittently (mostly via dialup UUCP protocol links) to allow for the sending and receiving of email links and for use by emerging newsgroup facilities. Prior to IP-based connection to the greater Internet, there existed an IP-based network, linking academic institutions within Australia, known as ACSNet, using the .oz domain and connected to international networks using other technologies. When Australia was fully integrated into the Internet, this domain was moved under .au to become and still exists today.

The first permanent circuit connecting AARNet to ARPANet using TCP/IP over X.25 was established in May 1989. It linked the University of Melbourne with the University of Hawaiivia a 2400-bit/s (bits per second) satellite connection. It was later upgraded to 56 kbit/s (kilobits per second), and then 256 kbit/s, at a time during which the US end-point was moved to San Jose at a NASA facility.

In 1992 there were two commercial ISPs competing with one another. DIALix provided services to Perth, and the other was Pegasus Networks in Byron Bay. By June 1995 this number had increased to excess of 100 [Internet Australasia Magazine], attributing some fifth of all AARNet traffic. At this time, it was decided by the Vice Chancellors' Committed that Telstra would be better positioned to lead the commercial push of the Internet into Australia, so all commercial customers were sold. A further early provider was the not-for-profit Australian Public Access Network Association (APANA). Founded in 1992 by Mark Gregson, APANA ran many small, widely dispersed gratis hosts for bulletin board systems and newsgroups, but developed into a provider of low-cost, non-commercial access to the Internet for its members.

In the late 1990's, Telstra and Optus rolled-out separate cable Internet services, focusing on the east coast. The first broadband service over HFC was around 1995 using the Motorola proprietary protocols. In around 2000 DOCSIS was rolled out then in around 2008 the HFC was upgraded to support 30mb/s. In 2000, the first consumer ADSL services were made available via Telstra Bigpond, at speeds of 256/64 kbit/s (downstream/upstream), 512/128 kbit/s, and 1500/256 kbit/s. Telstra chose to artificially limit all ADSL speeds to a maximum of 1500/256 kbit/s. As ADSL required access to the telephone exchange and the copper line — which only Telstra had — this allowed Telstra to be dominant due to the expense of roll-out for other companies and Telstra's established customer base. Other ISPs followed suit soon after; offering a Telstra Wholesale–based service.

·         TPG performed at 88.3% of its maximum plan speed.

·         Aussie Broadband performed at 85.4% of its maximum plan speed.

·         iiNet performed at 84.8% of its maximum plan speed.

·         Optus performed at 84% of its maximum plan speed.

·         Telstra performed at 83.5% of its maximum plan speed.

 

Generally speaking, the fastest household internet speeds that you can expect in Australia are around 100 megabits per second (Mbps) downloading, and 40Mbps uploading.

·         100Mbps means you can download around 12.5 megabytes of content per second.

While there are undoubtedly some households sporadically achieving above this mark, 100Mbps is pretty much the benchmark for fast internet in Australia, while geographically smaller nations like Singapore and even New Zealand are getting access to much faster speeds of up to 1Gbps (gigabit per second), which is 1000Mbps – 10 times faster than the fastest internet available here in Australia.

It’s all well and good the telcos advertising 100Mbps speeds, but what are you actually going to get in the real world? In November 2018, the ACCC released its third report on the state of telco services and the speeds of their NBN plans. The ACCC found that in peak periods (7pm to 11pm):

·         TPG performed at 88.3% of its maximum plan speed

·         Aussie Broadband performed at 85.4% of its maximum plan speed

·         iiNet performed at 84.8% of its maximum plan speed

·         Optus performed at 84% of its maximum plan speed

·         Telstra performed at 83.5% of its maximum plan speed

·         My Republic performed at 82.1% of its maximum plan speed

 

This in effect means that out of the ‘big four’ providers, TPG was technically rated ‘the best’, as its plans were more likely to achieve their maximum speeds. While the ACCC report is a helpful guide to which telcos might deliver the fastest speeds, there are still many variables that will impact what happens at your place.

 

France:

Internet connection was made available to the public in 1994. As of 2015 data, more than 83% of the population of France have an internet connection (approximately 55 million).

The major methods of internet access in France are:
ADSL: It provides a speed of up to 28 Mbps and moderate price plans.
VDSL2: It provides speed up to 100 Mbps but costly than ADSL.
FTTX (using optical fiber): It can provide speed up to 1Gbps and have a high cost.
Most of the internet plans in France provide uncapped data access (unlimited data).

Connectivity:

Dunant: It connects France to USA(Virginia) of length 6,600KM built by Google. It will be completed by 2020.
ACE Africa coast to Europe: It was launched in 2012. Connects France to Portugal and many countries in the African continent, having a cable length of 17,000KM.
Apollo: Started in 2003 having a length of 13,000KM. It is owned by Vodafone. It connects France to New York.

 

Q4: Investigate the Internet of Things. Select one example and describe what it is and how it works.

Answer:

The Internet of things (IoT) is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices and everyday objects.  IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

Example: Smart Cities.

What it is: Smart city is powerful application of IoT.  A smart city utilizes IoT sensors, actuators and technology to connect components across the city, and it impacts every layer of a city, from underneath the streets, to the air that citizens are breathing. Data from all segments is analyzed, and patterns are derived from the collected data. The examples of IoT applications for smart cities are Smart energy, smart transportation, smart infrastructure, smart home, etc.

Some major technologies for a smart city are:

1.Smart energy:

Modernizing electric grid through smart grid enhancements, making renewables like rooftop solar power are some components of smart energy. Dirty energy like coal or petroleum produced close to cities contributes to unhealthy air quality. Smart grid integrates renewable energy with clean energy which give a pollution free environment.

2.Smart transportation: Here is a list of IoT applications that can be implemented in smart city:

Bicycle sharing system: A bicycle sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a very short-term basis.

Geospatial-enabled efficient transportation system: Periodic traffic forecast, journey planning mobile applications based on real-time data are few examples.

Single fare card: Single fare card for fare payment on the all public transportation systems like train, bus, taxi etc.

Smart traffic lights: Smart traffic lights leverages technology to sense traffic condition to tune traffic lights which enable smooth flow of traffic.

3.Smart infrastructure:

Smart city is able to analyze large amounts of data which provides good maintenance and better planning according to future needs. Smart infrastructure includes roads with cycle tracks, 24X7 water and power, ICT enabled infrastructure, domestic waste collection, recycling of water, rainwater harvesting, waste to energy processing and more. IoT helps achieve proper management of the above by understanding the requirements from the analyzed data.

4.Smart Home:

Automated switching on of air conditioner just before the arrival for the resident, automated Switching off of the lights when the person leaves for outside, unlocking of doors on arrival of known members of resident are few examples how smart homes can be implemented.