ITS 364

Chapter 17

Nan Hu

Review and Discuss

1.     Differentiate between the development of software by specific companies and the creation of XHTML, HTML5 and other markup languages. 17.1

   Unlike software that is developed and maintained by specific companies, XHTML and other markup languages are not written and owned by specific companies. XHTML code is looked over and monitored by the W3C that develops specifications for markup languages and other web development tools.

2.     Outline the process of approval of new standards by the W3C. 17.1

   Before finalization of standards, committees of these professionals draft versions that are proposed, reviewed and commented on by any interested party, and discussed, revised and betted and perhaps revised again.

3.     Identify the biggest challenges once new code has been approved by the W3C and integrated by web developers. 17.1

         Once a new standard is released by W3C the developers of browser software and websites begin to integrate these modifications into their programs. This means that older versions of browser software may not be able to use all of the features that are part of a newer or updated website.

4.     Identify the relationship between the W3C and WAI. 17.2 & 17.3

         The W3C believes that the web should be universally accessible. To ensure that the internet was accessible to everyone, the W3C launched a multifaceted effort called the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). These WAI includes the creation of guidelines for website accessibility, support materials and resources, for web developers, tools for evaluating accessibility, and even advice on using the Web for those who have disabilities.

5.     Identify the four areas promoted by the WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines). 17.2 & 17.3

        The WCAG promotes websites to be perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust. A perceivable website means that it is made in such a way that individuals with disabilities can perceive the content in some alternative way. Operable website means that all site functions can be accessed using a keyboard or other ways for people needing aid. Thirdly, the website should be understandable, which means that it should be readable and clear, predictable, and takes steps to prevent error. Finally, the website should be robust, meaning that it should be compatible with current and future technology.

6.     Compare and contrast the WCAG recommendations by the W3C and the government’s Sections 508. 17.2 & 17.3

         The W3C believes that the web should be universally accessible. To ensure that the internet was accessible to everyone, the W3C launched a multifaceted effort called the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). The WCAG is designed to promote accessibility to be perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust.

The government’s Section 508 are recommendations for web accessibility are guidelines and not mandates. These requires electronic and information technology offered by federal agencies to be fully accessible to all users. These laws do not apply to sites created by businesses, but considers all audiences when the web page is being constructed.

7.     Analyze how web page conventions affect the design of a web page. 17.4

         According to web conventions, “websites should include a copyright date and indicate the last date that a page has been updated.” Other suggestions include putting links back to the home page and a contact link or form, the businesses physical address, telephone number, a link to google maps specifying their location, and a FAQs page. Webpage conventions give basic parameters that the designer and business should follow when constructing a web page. These conventions, however, are just the basis for the web page and the web designer can make any changes to their pages past these simple necessities.  

8.     Describe effective tools to use in getting your web page found in search engines. 17.5

   A search engine utilizes a software called spiders, which continuously roam the Internet and send the results of their encounters back to the search engine’s database. This software generally looks at the title and heading of the website, the beginning of the web page, words that appear most frequently, and also look at the meta tags. Users implement keywords into their website, which is a word that is included in the meta tag or header that is meant to indicate the content of a web page.

9.     Formulate a plan to ensure that your website will be found using search engines. 17.5

         Use well-formed code

      Use simple, relatively short URLs

      Using very descriptive titles and headings that clearly state the topic of the content they refer to.

      Keeping pages relatively small in size

      Including a sitemap for the website

Registering the website with search engines.

10.  Justify the use of search engine optimization and the need for SEO consultants used in some businesses. 17.5

         SEO depends on three factors including: frequent and relevant keywords, the amount of links to the website from other websites and purchasing adwords. These are seen as positive ways to direct traffic onto your webpage and should not be looked at as a negative thing that the user is trying to do since everyone has the ability to use these techniques. Businesses can use these practices by signing up with webmaster tools, carefully considering keywords, creating amazing content, making it easier to share, and agreeing to link exchanges with other web sites. Finally, they can also hire SEO consultants to try to increase the amount of traffic to their sites.